AskDefine | Define periodate

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Noun

  1. A salt of periodic acid.

Extensive Definition

The periodate ion is IO4− or IO65−. It comes from periodic acid.
A periodate is a compound that contains this group. Note that the pronunciation is per-iodate, not period-ate.

Examples

See category for a bigger list.

Discussion

Periodates include two forms. The metaperiodate ion is IO4−; the orthoperiodate ion is IO65−.
Periodate compounds include metaperiodates and orthoperiodates. Usually both are called periodates.
In neutral or weak acid conditions, IO4− is most common, in equilibrium with a smaller amount of H4IO6−. In basic conditions, H3IO62− is formed, plus some other ions.
Like its neighbor, tellurium, and unlike lighter halogens, iodine tends to be hexacoordinate, and the units HnIO6(5−n)- are quite common; but in the case of iodine, tetracoordinate units, such as IO4−, are also quite common.

Uses

Periodates can cleave carbon-carbon bonds when both carbon atoms bear an oxygen atom, either in the form of a hydroxyl or a carbonyl group. This property is often utilized in molecular biochemistry for the purposes of modifying saccharide rings, as many five- and six-membered sugars often have vicinal diols.
periodate in Russian: Периодаты
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